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The 1950's, the decade of happy pursuit of the American Dream.  The years after the 'war to end all wars' were exciting and challenging for the whole world of science and technology. 

1951  The first commercial computer, named the "First Ferranti MARK I," is now functional at the Manchester University.

1951  Douglas Hartree (the leading expert in the country on the specialized computing machines called differential analyzers) gives his professional opinion to Ferranti Ltd., of Manchester, England: "As the 3 existing computer projects will suffice to handle all the calculations that will ever be needed in England, Ferranti would be well advised to drop the idea of making computers for commercial sale."   Wrong, Mr. Hartree!

1956  At MIT, researchers began experimentation on direct keyboard input on computers, a forerunner of  today's normal mode of operation.

1958  Jack Kilby created the first integrated circuit at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material.

1959  Robert Noyce's practical integrated circuit, invented at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., allowed printing of conducting channels directly on the silicon surface.         IBM's 7000 series mainframes were the company's first transistorized computers.

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